How to plant fruit trees

Fruit trees are surprisingly easy to grow on a personal plot. In the spring they will please you with beautiful flowers, and then with an abundance of fruits. Apple trees, peach, plums and pears - all these trees grow well in different climatic conditions. When making your choice, consult the fruit nursery whether the conditions of the locality you live in will suit the fruit tree you have chosen. Read this article to learn how to plant fruit trees so that they successfully bear fruit in the coming years.

Choosing a place to land

Buy an open root fruit tree

Fruit with good taste - sweet apples, plums, pears, etc. - give grafted trees. Although fruit trees can be grown from seeds, such trees do not necessarily produce fruits that are edible. To make sure that your chosen tree will bear fruit with good taste, it is best to buy a fruit tree with open roots, a very young and already grafted tree.

  1. You can purchase a seedling with an open root system in the nursery at the end of winter.
  2. Buying at a local nursery will be the best choice, because there you will buy a tree that will successfully grow in your area.
  3. A tree with an open root system should be planted as soon as possible after purchase.

Choose an open sunspot on your site

Fruit trees usually need at least 6 hours of exposure to full sun to produce full-fledged fruits. Find a place on the site where the fruit tree will not be obscured by the house or other, taller trees. There should be no other vegetation next to the fruit tree that would compete with it for nutrients and water.

  1. Fruit trees usually need at least 6 hours of exposure to full sun to produce full-fledged fruits. Find a place on the site where the fruit tree will not be obscured by the house or other, taller trees. There should be no other vegetation next to the fruit tree that would compete with it for nutrients and water.

Check soil drainage at the proposed planting location

In addition to the sun, good soil drainage is the second essential condition for the fruit trees to flourish. Water in the soil should not stagnate, because from this the roots of fruit trees will rot in the ground. Check soil drainage by digging a 1-foot hole and filling it with water. If water is quickly absorbed into the soil, the place is perfect for planting a fruit tree. If water stagnates, select another location.

  1. If you have heavy clay soil on the site, which leads to insufficient drainage, you can still plant a tree if you use certain methods. For example, you can plant a fruit tree on a raised bed or loosen the clay by mixing it with compost, which will improve drainage.

Digging a hole and preparing the soil

Start preparing for spring planting

Although fruit trees can be planted at any time of the year, it is better to do this in areas with cold winters in spring. Then the tree will immediately begin to adapt to the soil and grow roots. Spring is also the best time to dig the soil, because at that time the ground has already thawed and become soft.

Add compost to the soil if necessary

If you have heavy clay soil or heavy compacted soil, it’s nice to dig it to a depth of at least 2 feet and make some compost. This will make the soil more loose, provide better drainage and create more favorable conditions for root growth. Use a garden shovel or cultivator to dig up and loosen the soil, then add compost and mix it with the ground.

Dig a wide hole

With a shovel, dig a hole twice as wide as the diameter of the roots of the tree you are planting. The roots of fruit trees usually grow away from the trunk, so you create enough room for them to grow. Make sure that the roots are surrounded by loose soil, and not compacted soil, which will limit their growth.

  1. At the same time, it is important to dig a not too deep hole. Since you are working with a grafted tree, it is important that the grafting located at the base of the tree trunk is above the soil level.
  2. If you are planting more than one tree, plant them at least 18 inches apart. The more space you give them, the better.

When planting fruit trees, follow the soil improvement instructions.

Depending on the type of tree and soil condition, you can add organic nutrients to the planting pit. In some cases, you just need to pour compost to the bottom of the landing pit.

  1. Consult your nursery for opportunities and need for soil improvement. In some cases, you may not have to fix and improve the soil, as the existing soil is rich in nutrients.
  2. Do not add compost or other nutrients unless advised to do so. Once the roots grow beyond the boundaries of improved soil, they will have to survive on naturally available nutrients. Therefore, ultimately, the very rich soil they fall into when planting does not bring the expected benefits.

Set the tree in the landing pit

Pour loose earth into the pit to a height of about the length of a finger to form a hill. Put the fruit tree on a hill with roots, spread the roots and make sure that the grafting site at the base of the tree trunk is above ground level. Adjust the position of the tree by adding or removing soil from the hill. Check if all roots are in the ground.

  1. If there are roots at / above the vaccination site, cut off these roots and check again that the vaccination site is above the ground. If the roots from the place of grafting reach the soil, then the tree will always produce weakening growth.

Tamp the soil around the roots

Fill the voids around the roots of the tree with nutritious soil and make sure the roots are completely covered with earth. Stand back and check if the tree is upright. Gently compact the soil. 

The trees

Planting apple trees

Apple trees are among the few fruit trees that can be grown in any region of our country. Without them, it is impossible to imagine any orchard. There are a huge number of varieties of this tree, from early to late terms of fruit ripening. And so it seems to many that growing an apple tree is not a difficult task. However, this is not quite true. Planting and caring for an apple tree requires knowledge and skills that not all beginners possess. A beautiful and abundantly fruiting tree is the result of the hard work of a gardener. In order to grow a healthy and productive tree, you need to know well how to plant apple seedlings. If you do not take into account the characteristics of planting, then you can wait for the harvest for a long time, when the tree will please you only with beautiful foliage, or even a seedling may die. So let's see how to plant apples.

Choice of term

The main question that gardeners are interested in is how and when to plant apples? If you follow the rules of planting, a good survival rate and rooting are possible throughout the season. However, in the opinion of experienced summer residents, the optimal period for most regions of Russia is early spring or mid-autumn.

Seasonally

In the spring
It is better to plant an apple tree in the spring in late March - early April, in other words, when the air temperature is already consistently above zero. On planted seedlings buds should not be dissolved. At the same time planted trees should be watered abundantly, not allowing the roots to dry.
In the autumn
The best period for planting in the fall is mid-October, that is, two weeks before the onset of negative temperatures. To protect young saplings from freezing, saplings planted in autumn need to be tucked in with earth, humus or compost. The trunks should be whitened with chalky solution. In winter, ensure that there is enough snow around the tree.
Summer
In summer, apple trees are planted in rare cases. In this case, it is necessary to carefully prepare the soil for planting, do not forget to apply fertilizer, pay special attention to watering.

How to plant an apple tree with a closed root system?

If you have already decided what sort of apple in the country you want to plant, it is better to purchase a seedling in a nursery or specialty store. Apple trees should be bought with a closed root system. The advantages of such seedlings consist in a high survival rate, since during planting they are simply removed from the container along with an earth ball, as a result of which their roots are not injured. These seedlings can be planted at any time of the year: in spring, summer or autumn. The question of how to choose a place for planting an apple tree, we consider below.

How to plant a pear

Planting such a large fruit tree as a pear is a responsible matter, because any nuance that was not taken into account during this important period can be affected after many months and even years when it will be very difficult or impossible to fix the problem.

Planting pears: spring or autumn?

Fruit trees are planted either in early spring or in autumn. The choice of the term of planting depends on several nuances.

Planting pears in spring

During the spring planting of fruit trees, most gardeners will express their opinion, dividing the gardens in a territory with a rather harsh Russian climate, arguing this choice with the following advantages:

  1. Spring planting usually begins in autumn: a planting pit is being prepared and charged, which by spring will be in perfect condition to receive a seedling;
  2. In spring, the soil, filled with moisture from the melting snow, will provide the most comfortable conditions for the young tree to adapt after planting;
  3. Throughout the summer season, the sapling grows and becomes stronger, gaining strength for the first wintering, and the gardener closely follows its development, helping the tree and correcting the problems that appear, while it is possible;
  4. Spring planting is more suitable for regions where summer is short and winter comes quickly and early. A fruit tree planted in autumn may not have time to take root and prepare for winter.

In each region, the concept of "early spring" is determined by local climatic features. In addition, the weather does not repeat from year to year, therefore, when choosing the dates for planting pears, one should take into account forecasts for the current spring. Beyond the Ural Mountains and in Siberia, the April heat may be replaced by a sharp cooling and snowfall until the end of May. So, the inhabitants of the areas of risky farming do not carry out any landing work before the middle of May. But in the Volga region, with its rather mild climate, trees were planted in the first half of April, so that they could take root before the onset of heat and drought. Central Russia, including Moscow, is the golden mean in the planting schedule: the second half of April - the first half of May. In any case, the main principle is the same: the earth is already amenable to digging with a shovel, and the trees have not yet dissolved the leaves.

Planting pears in the fall

Autumn planting of fruit is preferred in the southern regions, where the long warm autumn gives way to fairly mild winters. An important advantage of the autumn planting in these regions with frequent droughts and hot summer is the risk of burning out of spring seedlings that did not have enough time to get stronger. If a pear is planted here in September or the first half of October, then it will have time to increase new roots for winter, to adapt and prepare for winter. If you do not avoid the autumn planting of a pear seedling in Siberia, then this should happen no later than September, otherwise the risk of freezing of an immature plant is high. In the Moscow region, in the fall, you can plant pears in the second half of September and early October. There are situations when the seedlings can be obtained at the most inappropriate time for planting - late autumn. In such cases, dig a trench, put the seedlings in it at an angle, drop them with earth, cover them with peat, fallen leaves, cover with non-woven cloth to protect them from frost. And in the spring planted in a permanent place.

Step-by-step landing scheme

  1. A seedling with an open root the day before planting is placed in a container with water (a solution of root formation stimulator). Before this, the roots inspect, remove damaged fragments.
  2. In a well charged in advance, taking out the ground, they make a hollow so that the roots fit freely, pour in a bucket of water.
  3. While the water is absorbed, the main root of the seedling and the large side roots are trimmed with a pruner so that at least 20 cm is left: this pruning stimulates the speedy growth of new roots. Remove residual foliage
  4. Sprinkle the slices with pounding coal, place the seedling in the pit so that the roots are freely stretched, not broken, the support peg is on the south side of the tree trunk, and the root neck is 3–4 cm above ground level
  5. The hole is evenly covered with the removed soil, slightly shaking the seedling so that the earth covers all air cavities. While tamping up the soil around the trunk, it is important not to lose sight of the level of the root collar: it must rise 2-3 cm above the ground so that the subsequent shrinkage of the soil does not allow it to enter the soil. The barrel is neatly tied to a peg in two places - top and bottom
  6. Having formed a hole around a trunk, the tree is watered (1 to 2 buckets of water), and the near-stem circle is mulched with compost or humus, peat, rotted sawdust, and freshly cut grass. Mulch is necessary to limit the evaporation of moisture and prevent the formation of a hard earth crust. Weeds are harder to break through the mulch layer, which means the young tree will have fewer competitors in the fight for moisture and nutrition. Do not sprinkle the trunk of the pear with mulch - the adherence of the wet layer to the bark of a still weak plant may cause rotting
  7. At the end of the planting, the central trunk and lateral shoots of the pear are pruned to a quarter height.